Stramonita haemastoma, common name the red-mouthed rock shell or the Florida dog winkle, is a species of predatory sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusc in the family Muricidae, the rock snails.
Stramonita haemastoma contains the following subspecies:
Stramonita haemastoma canaliculata (Gray, 1839)
Stramonita haemastoma floridana (Conrad, 1837)
Stramonita haemastoma haemastoma (Linnaeus, 1767)
The red-mouthed rock shell occurs widely in tropical and warm water areas of the Western Atlantic Ocean. Regions where it can be found include the Caribbean Sea, North Carolina and Florida, Bermuda and the entire Brazilian coast, including the islands of Abrolhos and Fernando de Noronha. It is also found in the Eastern Atlantic: tropical Western Africa and Southwestern Africa, including Cape Verde and Angola, and in European waters, including Macaronesian Islands, the Mediterranean Sea and the southwest coast of Apulia. Canary Islands. Its once abundant population in the Eastern Mediterranean collapsed early in the 21st century and had entirely disappeared by 2016.
The adult shell size for this species varies between 22 mm and 120 mm.
Stramonita haemastoma is a widespread gastropod that consumes bivalves, barnacles and limpets. In the Mediterranean Sea the whelk is an important predator of the bivalve Mytilaster minimus, but where the invasive Lessepsian migrant bivalve Brachidontes pharaonis is found, the whelk prefers to prey on that species over the native bivalves and barnacles.Giacoletti, A., Rinaldi, A., Mercurio, M., Mirto, S. and SarÃ , G. 2016. "Local consumers are the first line to control biological invasions: a case of study with the whelk Stramonita haemastoma (Gastropoda: Muricidae)". Hydrobiologia. 772:117â€“129. Through feeding behaviors such as attacking the margin or lip of shells where defenses are weakest, Stramonita haemastoma insert its proboscid between the valves injecting proteolytic enzymes and a toxin that causes bivalves to gape.Watanabe, J.T. & Young, C.M. 2006. Feeding habits and phenotypic changes in proboscis length in the southern oyster drill, Stramonita haemastoma (Gastropoda: Muricidae), on Florida sabellariid worm reefs. Marine biology, 148:1021-1029.McGraw, K.A., Gunter, G. 1972. Observations on killing of the Virginia oyster by the gulf oyster borer, Thais haemastoma, with evidence for a paralytic secretion. Proc Nat Shellfish Assoc 62:95â€“97.
The shell was one of two principal sources of Tyrian purple, a highly prized dye used in classical times for the clothing of royalty, as recorded by Aristotle and Pliny the Elder.
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Category:Muricidae Category:Molluscs of the Atlantic Ocean Category:Gastropods of Africa Category:Molluscs of Europe Category:Molluscs of South America Category:Molluscs of the Mediterranean Sea Category:Molluscs of the Canary Islands Category:Molluscs of Angola Category:Gastropods of Cape Verde Category:Molluscs described in 1767 Category:Taxa named by Carl Linnaeus