Sensory deprivation or perceptual isolationDonald Olding Hebb, Essay on Mind, Psychological Press, 1980 is the deliberate reduction or removal of stimuli from one or more of the senses. Simple devices such as blindfolds or hoods and earmuffs can cut off sight and hearing, while more complex devices can also cut off the sense of smell, touch, taste, thermoception (heat-sense), and the 'feeling' of gravity. Sensory deprivation has been used in various alternative medicines and in psychological experiments (e.g. with an isolation tank). Short-term sessions of sensory deprivation are described as relaxing and conducive to meditation; however, extended or forced sensory deprivation can result in extreme anxiety, hallucinations, bizarre thoughts, temporary senselessness, and depression.Stuart Grassian Psychiatric effects of solitary confinement(PDF) This article is a redacted, non-institution- and non-inmate-specific version of a declaration submitted in September 1993 in Madrid v. Gomez, 889F.Supp.1146.
Grassian Psychopathological effects of solitary confinement American Journal of Psychiatry Online 1983; 140: 1450-1454
Haney Mental Health Issues in Long-Term Solitary and "Supermax" Confinement, Crime Delinquency. 2003; 49: 124-156
Daryl Matthews. Physicians' Obligation to Speak Out for Prisoners' Health, American Medical Association.
Karen Franklin Segregation Psychosis
Harold I. Schwartz, Death Row Syndrome and Demoralization: Psychiatric Means to Social Policy Ends J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 33:2:153-155 (2005)
A related phenomenon is perceptual deprivation, also called the Ganzfeld effect. In this case a constant uniform stimulus is used instead of attempting to remove the stimuli; this leads to effects which have similarities to sensory deprivation. Sensory deprivation techniques were developed by some of the armed forces within NATO, as a means of interrogating prisoners within international treaty obligations. The European Court of Human Rights ruled that the use of the five techniques by British security forces in Northern Ireland amounted to a practice of inhuman and degrading treatment.
There are many different numbers of basic methods of restricted environmental stimulation, including therapy (REST), chamber REST, and flotation REST.
In chamber REST, the subject lies on a bed in a completely dark and sound-reducing (on average, 80 dB) room for up to 24 hours. Their movement is restricted by the experimental instructions, but not by any mechanical restraints. Food, drink, and toilet facilities are provided in the room and are at the discretion of the tester, who can communicate with the participants using an open intercom. Subjects are allowed to leave the room before the 24 hours are complete; however, fewer than 10% actually do because they find the chamber so relaxing. Chamber REST affects psychological functioning (thinking, perception, memory, motivation, and mood) and psychophysiological processes.
rightthumb220pxFlotation tank with flip top lid opened In flotation REST, the room contains a tank or pool. The flotation medium consists of a skin-temperature solution of water and Epsom salts at a specific gravity that allows for the patient to float supine without worry of safety. In fact, to turn over while in the solution requires "major deliberate effort." Fewer than 5% of the subjects tested leave before the session duration ends, which is usually around an hour for flotation REST. For the first 40 minutes, it is reportedly possible to experience itching in various parts of the body (a phenomenon also reported to be common during the early stages of meditation). The last 20 minutes often end with a transition from beta or alpha brain waves to theta, which typically occur briefly before sleep and again at waking. In a float tank, the theta state can last for several minutes without the subject losing consciousness. Some use the extended theta state as a tool for enhanced creativity and problem solving. Spas sometimes provide commercial float tanks for use in relaxation. Flotation therapy has been academically studied in the US and in Sweden with published results showing reductions of both pain and stress. The relaxed state also involves lowered blood pressure, lowered levels of cortisol, and maximal blood flow. Apart from physiological effects, REST seems to have positive effects on well-being and performance.Dirk van Dierendonck & Jan te Nijenhuis - Flotation restricted environmental stimulation therapy (REST) as a stress- management tool: A meta-analysis
Chamber versus flotation REST
Several differences exist between flotation and chamber REST. For example, with the presence of a medium in flotation REST, the subject has reduced tactile stimulation while experiencing weightlessness. The addition of Epsom salts to attain the desired specific gravity may have a therapeutic effect on hypertonic muscles. Since one of the main results of chamber REST is a state of relaxation, the effects of chamber REST on arousal are less clear-cut, which can be attributed to the nature of the solution. Also, due to the inherent immobilization that is experienced in flotation REST (by not being able to roll over), which can become uncomfortable after several hours, the subject is unable to experience the session durations of chamber REST. This may not allow the subject to experience the changes in attitudes and thinking that are associated with chamber REST. Additionally, the research questions asked between each technique are different. Chamber REST questions stemmed from research that began in the 1950s and explored a variety of questions about the need for stimulation, nature of arousal and its relationship with external stimulation. Practitioners in this area have explored its utility in the treatment of major psychiatric dysfunctions such as substance abuse. On the contrary, flotation REST was seen as more of a recreational tool as it was tested more for its use with stress-related disorders, pain reduction and insomnia. Numerous studies have debated which method is a more effective treatment process, however, only one has explored this statistically. Nineteen subjects, all of whom used chamber or flotation REST to induce relaxation or treat smoking, obesity, alcohol intake, or chronic pain were analyzed. The statistic of interest, d, is a measure of the size of the treatment effect. For reference, d=0.5 is considered a moderate effect and d=0.8 a large effect. The 19 subjects who underwent chamber REST had d=0.53 and six flotation REST subjects showed d=0.33. Additionally, when examining subjects undergoing REST treatment and REST in conjunction with another treatment method, there was little difference. . However, Flotation REST has the advantage of a lower duration required (45 minutes as opposed to 24 hours).
The use of REST has been explored in aiding in the cessation of smoking. In studies ranging between 12 months and five years, 25% of REST patients achieved long-term abstinence. REST, when combined with other effective smoking cessation methods (for example: behavior modification) resulted in long-term abstinence of 50%. Also, when combined with weekly support groups, REST resulted in 80% of patients achieving long-term abstinence. Comparatively, the use of a nicotine patch alone has a success rate of 5%. Alcoholism has also been the target of research associated with REST. In conjunction with anti-alcohol educational messages, patients who underwent two hours of REST treatment reduced alcohol consumption by 56% in the first two weeks after treatment. The reduction in consumption was maintained during follow-ups conducted three and six months after the first treatment. It is, however, possible that this is caused by the placebo effect. In addition, REST has been tested to determine its effect on users of other drugs. A University of Arizona study used chamber REST as a complement to traditional outpatient substance abuse treatment and found that four years later, 43% of the patients were still sober and drug-free. Eight months later, no one in the control group remained clean.
Studies have been conducted to test the effect of sensory deprivation on the brain. One study took 19 volunteers, all of whom tested in the lower and upper 20th percentiles on a questionnaire which measures the tendency of healthy people to see things not really there, and placed them in a pitch-black, soundproof booth for 15 minutes, after which they completed another test that measures psychosis-like experiences, originally used to study recreational drug users. Five subjects reported seeing hallucinations of faces; six reported seeing shapes/faces not actually there; four noted a heightened sense of smell, and two reported sensing a "presence of evil" in the room. People who scored lower on the first test experienced fewer perceptual distortions; however, they still reported seeing a variety of hallucinations. Many studies have been conducted to understand the main causes of the hallucinations, and considerable evidence has been accumulated indicating that long periods of isolation aren't directly related to the level of experienced hallucinations. Marvin Zuckerman & Nathan Cohen (1964). Sources of Reports of Visual Auditory Sensations in perceptual-isolation experiments. Schizophrenics appear to tend to experience fewer hallucinations while in REST as compared to non-psychotic individuals. A possible explanation for this could be that non-psychotic individuals are normally exposed to a greater degree of sensory stimulation in everyday life, and in REST, the brain attempts to re-create a similar level of stimulation, producing the hallucinatory events.From drugs to deprivation: a Bayesian framework for understanding models of psychosis According to a 2009 study published in the Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, the hallucinations are caused by the brain misidentifying the source of what it is currently experiencing, a phenomenon called faulty source monitoring. A study conducted on individuals who underwent REST while under the effects of Phencyclidine (PCP) showed a lower incidence of hallucination in comparison to participants who did not take PCP. The effects of PCP also appeared to be reduced while undergoing REST. The effects PCP has on reducing occurrences of hallucinatory events provides a potential insight into the mechanisms behind these events.From drugs to deprivation: a Bayesian framework for understanding models of psychosis
Sensory deprivation has been used to disorientate subjects during interrogation, brainwashing, and torture. In particular, the five techniques of wall-standing; hooding; subjection to noise; deprivation of sleep; deprivation of food and drink were used by the security forces in Northern Ireland in the early 1970s. After the Parker Report of 1972, these techniques were formally abandoned by the United Kingdom as aids to the interrogation of paramilitary suspects. The Irish government on behalf of the men who had been subject to the five methods took a case to the European Commission of Human Rights (Ireland v. United Kingdom, 1976 Y.B. Eur. Conv. on Hum. Rts. 512, 748, 788-94 (European Commission of Human Rights)). The Commission stated that it "considered the combined use of the five methods to amount to torture."Security Detainees/Enemy Combatants: U.S. Law Prohibits Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment Footnote 16David Weissbrodt http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/intlhr/chapter19.doc materials on torture and other ill-treatment: 3. European Court of Human Rights (doc) http://www.google.com/search?q=cache:u7wX9dL11d4J:www1.umn.edu/humanrts/intlhr/chapter19.doc&hl=en&gl=uk&ct=clnk&cd=2&lr=lang_en html: Ireland v. United Kingdom, 1976 Y.B. European Convention on Human Rights. 512, 748, 788-94 (European Commission of Human Rights) This consideration was overturned on appeal, when in 1978 the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) examined the United Nations' definition of torture. The court subsequently ruled that the five techniques "did not occasion suffering of the particular intensity and cruelty implied by the word torture," however they did amount "to a practice of inhuman and degrading treatment," which is a breach of the European Convention on Human Rights, Article 3.http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/sites/eng/pages/search.aspx?i=001-57506 Ireland v. the United Kingdom (1978), paragraph 167 In their judgmentIreland v. the United Kingdom (1978), paragraph 96 the court states that:
These methods, sometimes termed "disorientation" or "sensory deprivation" techniques, were not used in any cases other than the fourteen so indicated above. It emerges from the Commission's establishment of the facts that the techniques consisted of:
* wall-standing: forcing the detainees to remain for periods of some hours in a stress position, described by those who underwent it as being "spreadeagled against the wall, with their fingers put high above the head against the wall, the legs spread apart and the feet back, causing them to stand on their toes with the weight of the body mainly on the fingers";
* hooding: putting a black or navy colored bag over the detainees' heads and, at least initially, keeping it there all the time except during interrogation;
* subjection to noise: pending their interrogations, holding the detainees in a room where there was a continuous loud and hissing noise;
* deprivation of sleep: pending their interrogations, depriving the detainees of sleep
* deprivation of food and drink: subjecting the detainees to a reduced diet during their stay at the center and pending interrogation
Isolation to facilitate abuse
Enhanced interrogation techniques
Human experimentation in the United States
Johnny Got His Gun
John C. Lilly
Fringe (TV Series)
Altered States (film)
P. Solomon et al. (eds.) (1961). Sensory deprivation. Harvard University Press.
Marvin Zuckerman, Nathan Cohen (1964). "Sources of Reports of Visual Auditory Sensations in perceptual-isolation experiments." Psychological Bulletin, July 1964, 62, pp. 1–20.
L. Goldberger (1966). "Experimental isolation: An overview." American Journal of Psychiatry 122, 774–782.
J. Zubek (ed.) (1969). Sensory deprivation: Fifteen years of research. Appleton Century Crofts.
European Court of Human Rights (1978). "Ireland v. the United Kingdom" – January 18, 1978.
Dirk van Dierendonck & Jan te Nijenhuis (2005). "Flotation restricted environmental stimulation therapy (REST) as a stress-management tool: A meta-analysis." Psychology and Health, June 2005, 20(3), pp. 405–412.
P. R. Corlett, C. D. Frith, P. C. Fletcher (2009). "From drugs to deprivation: a Bayesian framework for understanding models of psychosis." Psychopharmacology (journal)Psychopharmacology'', November 2009, 206(4), pp. 515–530.
Heron, W. The pathology of boredom. Sci. Amer, 1957, 196, 52-56.
John C. Lilly (inventor of the flotation tank). "The Deep Self: Profound Relaxation and the Tank Isolation Technique" (See also John Lilly, in Flaherty, B.E. (Ed) Psychophysiological aspects of space flight, Columbia U Press, 1961)
Suedfeld, P. (1980). Restricted environmental stimulation: Research and clinical applications. Wiley Interscience.
Zuckerman, M., et al. Experimental and subject factors determining responses to perceptual and social isolation. J. abnorm. Psychol. 1968, 73, 183-194.
By the Numbers Findings of the Detainee Abuse and Accountability Project Report of the Detainee Abuse and Accountability Project (26 April 2006).
Hallucinations in anechoic chambers: the science behind the claim