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Transitional Government of National Unity (Namibia)

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The Transitional Government of National Unity (TGNU), also commonly called the Interim Government, was the interim government of South-West Africa (Namibia) from June 1985 to February 1989.

Background

Following the 1975–1977 Turnhalle Constitutional Conference, the first multiracial elections were held in the occupied territory in 1978, and a National Assembly as well as a Council of Ministers was constituted. Dirk Mudge became chairman of the ministerial council. Already in 1972 the United Nations had decreed SWAPO to be the "sole legitimate representative" of Namibia's people, but SWAPO was not invited to the Turnhalle conference and boycotted the subsequent elections. The United Nations Security Council consequently declared the election null and void, and the interim government illegitimate.BBC News - Namibia profile
Following interference by the South African Administrator-General the Council of Ministers resigned, and on 18 January 1983 South Africa accepted the dissolution of both the legislative and the executive body without elections being scheduled, and again assumed full administrative authority over South West Africa.
The subsequent void was filled by South African administrators. Willie van Niekerk was appointed administrator-general for South West Africa and Jan F Greebe became chief executive officer. A Judicial Commission was appointed. Urged by United Nations Security Council Resolution 532 to speed up the process of releasing the territory into independence, a State Council was established in May 1983. In September this Council was obsoleted by the establishment of the Multi-Party Conference (MPC) which consisted of 19 parties but again excluded SWAPO. The MPC issued the Windhoek Declaration of Basic Principles in 1984 and the Bill of Fundamental Rights and Objectives, wherein the establishment of a Transitional Government of National Unity is requested from the South African administration, in 1985.

Setup

On 17 June 1985, the Transitional Government of National Unity was installed by the South African Administrator-General. Its legislative and executive actions were subject to South African approval, with newly appointed administrator-general Louis Pienaar having the veto right on all legislation to be passed. The TGNU was perceived as a client government of South Africa that sought moderate reform but was unable to secure recognition by the United Nations.DTA ‘Down but Not Out’ RehobothBasters.org
The body was dominated by the Democratic Turnhalle Alliance (DTA), then an alliance of ethnically based, unelected political parties. The interim government consisted of a 62-seat National Assembly and an 8-seat Council of Ministers. The seats were allocated such that the DTA had 22, and five smaller parties got 8 seats each: Labour Party (LP), the National Party of South West Africa (NP), the Rehoboth Free Democratic Party, the South West Africa National Union (SWANU), and the SWAPO Democrats (SWAPO-D). The position of the DTA was, however, not as strong as in the previous government after the 1978 elections where it occupied 41 out of the 50 seats. This time, the five smaller parties could easily outvote the DTA.
On 1 March 1989 TNGU was suspended along the terms of United Nations Security Council Resolution 435 for it to give way to an independent government, determined by the November 1989 parliamentary elections. SWAPO won the elections but fell short of a two-thirds majority which would have enabled it to write the constitution on its own.Namibia Tiscali Encyclopedia

Cabinet

TGNU was chaired on a three-month round robin basis by its cabinet members.
{ border="1"
-
! DatesList of TGNU leaders worldstatesmen.org
! Chairman
! Ministerial portfolio
! Party
-
17 June 1985 — 16 September 1985
Dawid Bezuidenhout
Transport
Labour Party
-
17 September 1985 — 16 December 1985
Hans Diergaardt
Local Authorities and Civic Affairs
Rehoboth Free Democratic Party
-
17 December 1985 — 16 March 1986
Moses Katjikuru Katjiuongua
Manpower, National Health and Welfare
SWANU
-
17 March 1986 — 16 June 1986
Fanuel Kozonguizi
Justice, Information, Post and Telecommunication
Democratic Turnhalle Alliance
-
17 June 1986 — 16 September 1986
Andrew Matjila
Education and Central Personnel Institution
Democratic Turnhalle Alliance
-
17 September 1986 — 16 December 1986
Dirk Mudge
Finance and Government Affairs
Democratic Turnhalle Alliance
-
17 December 1986 — 31 January 1987
Ebenezer van Zijl
Agriculture, Water Affairs and Fisheries
South West National Party
-
1 February 1987 — 30 April 1987
Andreas Shipanga
Nature Conservation, Mining, Commerce and Tourism
SWAPO Democrats
-
1 May 1987 — 31 July 1987
Dawid Bezuidenhout
Transport
Labour Party of Namibia
-
1 August 1987 — 17 January 1988
Jan de Wet
South West National Party
-
18 January 1988 — 17 April 1988
Moses Katjikuru Katjiuongua
Manpower, National Health and Welfare
South West African National Union
-
18 April 1988 — 17 July 1988
Andrew Matjila
Education and Central Personnel Institution
Democratic Turnhalle Alliance
-
18 July 1988 — 17 October 1988
Dirk Mudge
Finance and Government Affairs
Democratic Turnhalle Alliance
-
18 October 1988 — December 1988
Andreas Shipanga
Nature Conservation, Mining, Commerce and Tourism
SWAPO Democrats
-
December 1988 — January 1989
Andrew Matjila
Education and Central Personnel Institution
Democratic Turnhalle Alliance
-
January 1989 — 28 February 1989
Harry Booysen
Labour Party of Namibia

Notes


Literature

  • {{Cite web
  • title=Democratic Elections in Namibia. An International Experiment in Nation Building
    publisher=National Democratic Institute for International Affairs
    date=June 1989 page=12
    url=https://www.ndi.org/files/158_na_election_060189.pdf
    format=PDF
    ref=
    Category:Government of Namibia
    Category:History of Namibia
    Category:Lists of political office-holders in Namibia
    Category:1985 establishments in South West Africa
    Category:1989 disestablishments in South West Africa
    Category:States and territories established in 1985
    Category:States and territories disestablished in 1989
     
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