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Base erosion and profit shifting (OECD project)

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quote = "It is hard to imagine any business, under the current Irish IP regime, which could not generate substantial intangible assets under Irish GAAP that would be eligible for relief under the Irish capital allowances for intangible assets scheme." "This puts the attractive 2.5% Irish IP-tax rate within reach of almost any global business that relocates to Ireland."
source=KPMG, "Intellectual Property Tax", 4 December 2017
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quote = Of the wider tax environment, O’Rourke thinks the OECD base-erosion and profit-shifting (BEPS) process is “very good” for Ireland. “If BEPS sees itself to a conclusion, it will be good for Ireland.”
source=Feargal O'Rourke CEO PwC (Ireland)
"Architect" of the double Irish
Irish Times, 2015
The OECD G20 Base Erosion and Profit Shifting Project (or BEPS Project) is an OECD/G20 project to set up an international framework to combat tax avoidance by multinational enterprises ("MNEs") using base erosion and profit shifting tools. The project, led by the OECD's Committee on Fiscal Affairs, began in 2013 with OECD and G20 countries, in a context of financial crisis and tax affairs (e.g. Offshore Leaks). Currently, after the BEPS report has been delivered in 2015, the project is now in its implementation phase, 116 countries are involved, including a majority of developing countries. During two years, the package was developed by participating members on an equal footing, as well as widespread consultations with jurisdictions and stakeholders, including business, academics and civil society. And since 2016, the OECD/G20 Inclusive Framework on BEPS provides for its 137 members a platform to work on an equal footing to tackle BEPS, including through peer review of the BEPS minimum standards, and monitoring of implementation of the BEPS package as a whole.
The BEPS project looks to develop multilateral dialogue and could be achieved thanks to a successful international cooperation, unavoidable when it comes to such a domestic and sovereign topic. It is one of the instances of the OECD that involves developing countries in its process. The European Commission and the US have unilaterally taken actions in 2017-2018 that implement several key measures of the BEPS project, even going beyond in some cases.


Project Aim

The aim of the project is to mitigate tax code loopholes and country-to-country inconsistencies so that corporations cannot shift profits from a country with a high corporate tax rate to countries with a low tax rate. The practice - in particular double non-taxation - is usually legal but often involves complex maneuvers within tax law. BEPS is costly for all parties involved, save the firm. The citizens’ trust in tax systems can be harmed by widespread tax avoidance practices, which puts at stake fiscal consent a concept at the core of modern democracies ; it is also a loss of revenues for the State. A conservative estimate has annual tax revenue losses between 100 and US$240 billion (i.e. 4-10% of global revenues from corporate income tax) due to profit shifting around the globe. A study by the Tax Justice Network estimated that around US$660 billion of corporate profits were shifted in 2012. In developed countries like those comprising the OECD, BEPS undermines the integrity of tax systems. In developing countries, where there is heavy reliance on corporate taxes, revenues are trimmed, leaving states underfunded and underinvested.
Furthermore, the project serves as an alternative to the deterioration of international tax norms. The project's Action Plan states that a failure to address BEPS would spawn “the emergence of competing sets of international standards, and the replacement of the current consensus-based framework by unilateral measures, which could lead to global tax chaos marked by the massive re-emergence of double taxation. In this respect, the BEPS project serves as an example of cooperation in game theory. The project prevents both double taxation and double non-taxation, as well as countries undercutting others by lowering tax rates to attract business. Countries cooperating yields a better outcome than non-cooperation.

Inclusive Framework

In October 2015, after two years of negotiations and development, a 15-point Action Plan was announced by the OECD and G20 to address BEPS. The Inclusive Framework was established in 2016, it was deemed necessary that for an effective international tax framework, developing countries must be involved. To gain membership, non-OECD/G20 countries must commit to the BEPS package, a plan to “equip government with domestic and international instruments to address tax avoidance, ensuring that profits are taxed where economic activities generating the profits are performed and where value is created.” All countries in the framework work on equal footing to implement the BEPS package. The package consists of 15 action plans that provide tax standards in exchange for a membership fee (discounted for developing countries). As of May 2018, 116 countries had signed on to the project.

BEPS Achievements

During its ongoing implementation and as of July 2018, the BEPS project of the OECD allowed to achieve the following realisations :
  • The Inclusive Framework on BEPS brings 116 countries and jurisdictions participating on an equal footing in the Project, representing over 95% of the global GDP (inc. some well-known financial centers).
  • 175 regimes have been reviewed and more than 130 regimes have already been amended or abolished or are in the process of being amended or abolished, moreover information on 17 000 tax rulings have already been identified and exchanged.
  • Measures to fight BEPS were included in 1,400 treaties, through the MLI.
  • Almost 50 jurisdictions started to automatically exchange financial account information in September 2017 and more than 50 will begin in September 2018. The first annual peer review report of Action 13 (Country-by-Country reporting), contains a comprehensive examination of 95 jurisdictions.
  • By July 2018, US$414 million of additional revenues have been raised with costs of less than US$4 million through the Tax Inspectors Without Borders (TIWB) initiative. Since 2012, TIWB completed 7 projects, 31 are currently operational, and there are 23 in the pipeline in Africa, Asia Pacific, Latin America and Caribbean, and Eastern Europe.

BEPS Examples

A spate of BEPS scandals in the past decade has served as an impetus for the OECD's action. The largest firms are often U.S. multinationals avoiding the high (35%) worldwide corporate tax rate in the United States. However BEPS tools (and structuring) are also increasingly used in money laundering/regulatory avoidance. The following are prominent examples of the leading BEPS tools in operation today:
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Double Irish is a BEPS scheme used by U.S. corporations in Ireland (incl. Apple, Google and Facebook ), to shield non-U.S. income from the pre TCJA U.S. worldwide 35% tax system, and almost all Irish taxes. As the BEPS scheme used to build offshore reserves of $1 trillion, it is the largest tax avoidance structure in history.
Single malt is another BEPS tax scheme designed to replicate the double Irish, which is impossible after 2020. It relies on specific wording in bi-lateral Irish tax treaties (particularly with Malta and the United Arab Emirates) to re-create the double Irish system and its effective tax rate of

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