The National Order of the Southern Cross ( ) is a Brazilian order of chivalry founded by Emperor Pedro I on 1 December 1822. This order was intended to commemorate the independence of Brazil and the coronation of Pedro I.White, William. Notes and queries, Volume 78. London: 1888, p. 173. The name derives from the geographical position of the country, under the constellation of the Southern Cross and also in memory of the name â€“ Ilha de Vera CruzTerra de Santa Cruz (Land of the Holy Cross) â€“ given to Brazil at the time of European discovery.
Originally known as the Imperial Order of the Cross (Ordem Imperial do Cruzeiro), the Order was created by Emperor Pedro I on the day of his Coronation, 1 December 1822. Also on the same date the first knights of the order were appointed, to commemorate the crowning of the Empire's first monarch. After the proclamation of the independence of Brazil on 7 September 1822 other honorific awards had been made, but of the Orders of chivalry shared with Portugal, Brazilian branches of which had been created upon independence; the Order of the Cross, created to mark the Coronation of the Empire's founder, was thus also the first purely Brazilian Order. After the fall of the monarchy, Brazil's first republican Constitution, enacted on 24 February 1891, abolished all titles of nobility and all Imperial Orders and decorations. The Order was later re-established by the government of GetÃºlio Vargas on December 5, 1932, as the National Order of the Southern Cross. thumb200pxThe Grand Coat of Arms of the Empire of Brazil displayed the badge of the Imperial Order of the Cross suspended from a blue necklet. During the Old Republic period (from the Proclamation of the Republic until the Revolution of 1930), National Orders did not exist and the Brazilian State bestowed only military medals.Even the short-lived republican Ordem de Colombo (Order of Columbus) that had been established by the Provisional Government of the Republic as a replacement to the Imperial Orders, was abolished when Congress promulgated Brazil's first republican Constitution on 24 February 1891, declaring all Orders abolished and stating that the Republic would maintain no Orders. Only after the 1891 Constitution had ceased to operate due to the 1930 Revolution was a republican honours system created, beginning with the recreation of the Order of the Southern Cross in 1932. Restored in 1932, the Order of the Southern Cross was the first Order to be created in the re-established, republican honours system. It is considered the senior Brazilian National Order. During the Imperial period, the Order of the Southern Cross was not the highest ranking of the Imperial Orders, as it ranked below the Brazilian branches of the ancient orders of chivalry, that originated with Portugal: the Order of Christ (the senior-most Order), the Order of Saint Benedict of Aviz and the Order of St. James of the Sword. Those Orders were shared by Brazil and Portugal; the Order of Christ was shared with the Holy See similar to the Austrian and a Spanish Orders of the Golden Fleece. However among the Brazilian created Orders, the Imperial Order of the Cross ranked first, having higher status than the Imperial Order of Pedro I and the Imperial Order of the Rose. The Imperial Order of the Cross continues to be used by both branches of the Brazilian Imperial Family as a House Order, awarded by the rival claimants to the position of Head of the Imperial Family, but such awards are not recognized by the Republic of Brazil. Just like the Emperors of Brazil were ex officio Grand Masters of the Imperial Order, Presidents of Brazil are ex officio Grand Masters of the successor National Order. Accordingly, President Jair Bolsonaro is the Order's current Grand Master.
Grand Collar: the recipient wears the adorned "Grand Collar", a chain from which the badge of the order is suspended. The recipient is also allowed to combine the wearing of the Grand Collar with any of the following insignia, or with both: the "Star" of the Order (a plaque modelled after the badge of the Order, to be worn on the left breast); and the Sash of the Order, that is proper to those of Grand Cross rank (a light blue sash, to be worn on the right shoulder). Awards of the Grand Collar are restricted to foreign Heads of State.
Grand Cross: the recipient wears the Sash of the Order, and the badge of the Order hangs from the bottom part of that sash (given that the sash is worn on the right shoulder, the badge hangs close to the left leg, by the waist line). The recipient further wears the "star" of the Order, displayed on the left breast.
Grand Officer: the recipient wears the badge of the Order around the neck suspended from a blue ribbon necklet, and the star of the order is displayed on the left breast.
Commander: the recipient wears the badge of the order around the neck, suspended from a blue ribbon necklet.
Officer: the recipient wears the badge of the Order on left breast suspended from a ribbon with a rosette.
Knight: the recipient wears the badge of the Order on the left breast suspended from a simple ribbon.
1972 â€“ Hugo Banzer (President of Bolivia)https://www.gettyimages.co.uk/detail/news-photo/brazilian-president-emilio-garrastazu-medici-decorates-news-photo/51400041#/brazilian-president-emilio-garrastazu-medici-decorates-bolivian-hugo-picture-id51400041
1972 â€“ Alexander II KaraÄ‘orÄ‘eviÄ‡ (Crown Prince of Yugoslavia)
1969 â€“ Neil Armstrong (astronaut)
1969 â€“ Michael Collins (astronaut)
1968 â€“ Elizabeth II (Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms)
1965 â€“ Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (Shah of Iran)
1964 â€“ Charles de Gaulle (President of France)
1964 â€“ Felix Grant (radio presenter)http://www.capitalbop.com/special-feature-fifty-years-later-remembering-a-golden-album-by-stan-getz-and-charlie-byrd/