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Grand Order of Mugunghwa

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The Grand Order of Mugunghwa ( ) is the highest order awarded by the government of South Korea. It is awarded to the President of South Korea, and it may be awarded to their spouse, heads or former heads of state of South Korean allies, and their spouses. The order is presented for, "Outstanding meritorious services in the interest of promoting the development and security of the Republic of Korea." (in English and Korean) Korea Legislation Research Institute. Retrieved 2018-02-15.
The Grand Order of Mugunghwa takes its name from South Korea's national flower, the rose of Sharon. The rose of Sharon is a cultivar native to the Korean peninsula and has great cultural significance in Korean history.

Appearance

The Grand Order of Mugunghwa consists of "an insignia worn around the neck, a badge affixed to sash worn over the shoulder and a star, with a ribbon and a lapel badge as necessary," according to law. The Grand Order of Mugunghwa may be made of gold, silver, ruby and amethyst. As of 2013, the cost to produce it was approximately 20 million won, or $19,000 USD.

Controversies

The Grand Order of Mugunghwa is traditionally awarded to the incoming President of South Korea shortly after their inauguration. However, Former President Roh Moo-hyun opted to accept the award upon his departure from office in 2008.
After their conviction for treason in 1996, former president Chun Doo-hwan and Roh Tae-woo were ordered to return the Grand Order of Mugunghwa along with other state decorations. While Chun agreed to return the awards, he and Roh have yet to actually return them.
By statute, the Grand Order of Mugunghwa is the highest decoration in Korea, however in the eyes of the public it is not as well regarded. Many Koreans feel that the Order has far less significance. This is due to the fact that it is self-awarded and is based on winning an election, not on any positive achievements for the country. There is also the fact that it is given to foreign heads of state, not necessarily because of what they have done for Korea, but for what they may do for Korea in the future.https://koreanmedals.com/

Recipients


{ South Korea
-
1960
Yun Posun
President
-
1963
Park Chung-hee
President
-
rowspan="2" 1964
Heinrich Lübke
President
rowspan="2" West Germany
-
Wilhelmine Lübke
First lady
-
rowspan="5" 1966
Ismail Nasiruddin of Terengganu
King
rowspan="2" Malaysia
-
Tengku Ampuan Tua Intan Zaharah
Queen
-
Bhumibol Adulyadej
King
rowspan="2" Thailand
-
Sirikit
Queen
-
Chiang Kai-shek
President
China
-
1967
Yuk Young-soo
First lady
South Korea
-
1968
Haile Selassie
Emperor
Ethiopia
-
rowspan="4" 1969
Nguyễn Văn Thiệu
President
rowspan="2" South Vietnam
-
Nguyễn Thị Mai Anh
First lady
-
Hamani Diori
President
rowspan="2" Niger
-
Aissa Diori
First lady
-
rowspan="2" 1970
Fidel Sánchez Hernández
President
rowspan="2" El Salvador
-
Marie Nade Sánchez Hernández
First lady
-
rowspan="2" 1975
Omar Bongo
President
rowspan="2" Gabon
-
Josephine Bongo
First lady
-
rowspan="4" 1979
Léopold Sédar Senghor
President
rowspan="2" Senegal
-
Colette Hubert Senghor
First lady
-
Choi Kyu-hah
President
rowspan="2" South Korea
-
Hong Gi
First lady
-
rowspan="4" 1980
Khalid of Saudi Arabia
King
Saudi Arabia
-
Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Sabah
Emir
Kuwait
-
Chun Doo-hwan
President
rowspan="2" South Korea
-
Lee Soon-ja
First lady
-
rowspan="8" 1981
Suharto
President
rowspan="2" Indonesia
-
Siti Hartinah
First lady
-
Ahmad Shah of Pahang
King
rowspan="2" Malaysia
-
Tengku Ampuan Afzan
Queen
-
Ferdinand Marcos
President
rowspan="2" Philippines
-
Imelda Marcos
First lady
-
Rodrigo Carazo Odio
President
rowspan="2" Costa Rica
-
Estrella Zeledón Lizano
First lady
-
rowspan="5" 1982
Samuel Doe
President
Liberia
-
Mobutu Sese Seko
President
rowspan="2" Democratic Republic of the Congo
-
Bobi Ladawa Mobutu
First lady
-
Abdou Diouf
President
Senegal
-
Kenan Evren
President
Turkey
-
rowspan="4" 1983
Gaafar Nimeiry
President
rowspan="2" Sudan
-
Butina Khalil Abbulhashan
First lady
-
Hussein of Jordan
King
rowspan="2" Jordan
-
Queen Noor of Jordan
Queen
-
rowspan="5" 1984
Hassanal Bolkiah
Sultan
Brunei
-
Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani
Emir
Qatar
-
Dawda Jawara
President
rowspan="2" Gambia
-
Chilele Jawara
First lady
-
Maumoon Abdul Gayoom
President
Maldives
-
rowspan="2" 1985
Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq
President
Pakistan
-
Luis Alberto Monge
President
Costa Rica
-
rowspan="2" 1986
Elizabeth II
Queen
United Kingdom
-
Baudouin of Belgium
King
Belgium
-
1987
Ahmed Abdallah
President
Comoros
-
rowspan="4" 1988
Roh Tae-woo
President
rowspan="2" South Korea
-
Kim Ok-suk
First lady
-
Iskandar of Johor
King
rowspan="2" Malaysia
-
Tunku Puan Zanariah
Queen
-
rowspan="3" 1989
Richard von Weizsäcker
President
West Germany
-
François Mitterrand
President
rowspan="2" France
-
Danielle Mitterrand
First lady
-
rowspan="2" 1990
Andrés Rodríguez
President
Paraguay
-
Árpád Göncz
President
Hungary
-
rowspan="3" 1991
Azlan Shah of Perak
King
rowspan="2" Malaysia
-
Raja Permaisuri Bainun
Queen
-
Carlos Salinas de Gortari
President
Mexico
-
1992
Jorge Serrano Elías
President
Guatemala
-
rowspan="4" 1993
Kim Young-sam
President
rowspan="2" South Korea
-
Son Myung-soon
First lady
-
Fidel Ramos
President
rowspan="2" Philippines
-
Amelita Ramos
First lady
-
rowspan="2" 1994
Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle
President
Chile
-
Lech Wałęsa
President
Poland
-
rowspan="5" 1995
Islam Karimov
President
Uzbekistan
-
Roman Herzog
President
Germany
-
Zhelyu Zhelev
President
Bulgaria
-
Nelson Mandela
President
South Africa
-
Carlos Menem
President
Argentina
-
rowspan="6" 1996
Álvaro Arzú
President
Guatemala
-
Fernando Henrique Cardoso
President
Brazil
-
Juan Carlos I of Spain
King
rowspan="2" Spain
-
Queen Sofía of Spain
Queen
-
Tuanku Ja’afar
King
Malaysia
-
Leonid Kuchma
President
Ukraine
-
rowspan="2" 1998
Kim Dae-jung
President
rowspan="2" South Korea
-
Lee Hee-ho
First lady
-
rowspan="2" 2000
Carlo Azeglio Ciampi
President
Italy
-
Jacques Chirac
President
France
-
2006
Abdelaziz Bouteflika
President
Algeria
-
rowspan="2" 2007
Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah
Emir
Kuwait
-
Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani
Emir
Qatar
-
rowspan="2" 2008
Roh Moo-hyun
President
rowspan="2" South Korea
-
Kwon Yang-sook
First lady
-
rowspan="3" 2009
Nursultan Nazarbayev
President
Kazakhstan
-
Alan García
President
Peru
-
Giorgio Napolitano
President
Italy
-
rowspan="1" 2011
Margrethe II of Denmark
Queen
Denmark
-
rowspan="2" 2012
Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden
King
Sweden
-
Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan
President
United Arab Emirates
-
rowspan="3" 2013
Lee Myung-bak
President
rowspan="3" South Korea
-
Kim Yoon-ok
First lady
-
Park Geun-hye
President
-
2014
Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono
President
Indonesia
-
2015
Ollanta Humala
President
Peru
-
2018
Emmanuel Macron
President
France
-
2019
Harald V
King
Norway

See also

  • Orders, decorations, and medals of South Korea

  • External links

  • Images of Grand Order of Mugunghwa (in Korean with some English)

  • Category:Orders, decorations, and medals of South Korea
     
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