Philippine witches are the users of black magic and related practices from the Philippines. They include a variety of different kinds of people with differing occupations and cultural connotations which depend on the ethnic group they are associated with. They are completely different from the Western notion of what a witch is, as each ethnic group has their own definition and practices attributed to witches. The curses and other magics of witches are often blocked, countered, cured, or lifted by Philippine shamans associated with the indigenous Philippine folk religions. Philippine witches practice a kind of black magic, specifically a malevolent use of sympathetic magic, which is associated with Indigenous Philippine religions. Witchcraft has been present throughout the Philippines before the Spanish colonization. Today it is said to be centered in Pampanga, Talalora, Western Samar and Sorsogon, where many of the country's faith healers reside. Witchcraft also exists in many of the hinterlands, especially in Samar and Leyte, however, witchcraft is known and occurs anywhere in the Philippines.
Each ethnic group in the Philippines has their own terms for witches. Some of these are as follow:Folk Practices and Beliefs in Leyte and Samar, Richard Arens, Divine Word University Publications, 1982Customs of the Tagalogs, Juan de Plasencis, 1589Encyclopedia of Philippine Folk Beliefs and Practices, F. R. Demetrio, Xavier University, 1991
Tagalog: manggagaway, mangkukulam
Waray: aswang, malupad, malakat, mambabarang
Bisaya: aswang, mambabarang
The craft of black magic among Filipino ethnic groups also have unique terms. Some of these are as follow:Encyclopedia of Philippine Folk Beliefs and Practices, F. R. Demetrio, Xavier University, 1991
There are various names for sorcerers in Philippine ethnic groups. Most of these names have negative connotations, and thus is also translated to "witch" or "hag" in English sources. These witches actually include a variety of different kinds of people with differing occupations and cultural connotations which depend on the ethnic group they are associated with. They are completely different from the Western notion of what a witch is. They include Bikol: parakaraw; Ilocano: managtanem, managinulod , mannamay; Ivatan: mamkaw, manulib; Kapampangan: mangkukusim (or mangkukusino); Pangasinan: manananem, mangngibawanen; Tagalog: mangkukulam, manggagaway"Tagalog-English Dictionary by Leo James English, Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer, Manila, distributed by National Book Store, 1583 pages, , may-galing, hukluban (or hukloban); Visayan: dalagangan, dunganon, dalongdongan, busalian, mambabarang (or mamamarang, mamalarang, barangan), usikan (or osikan), paktolan, sigbinan, manughiwit, mamumuyag, mang-aawog (or mang-aawug, mang-aaug), Hiligaynon: manog hiwit. Other terms are the Spanish brujo and bruja (masculine and feminine forms of "witch"; Filipinized as bruho and bruha).
A mangkukulam can be considered a Filipino witch, literally meaning "a practitioner of kulam". A curse is called a sumpÃ¢ (/soom-PA/), which can also be translated as a "vow" or "oath" and "curse". A mangkukulam may use a voodoo doll and a needle to cast spells on people they want to take revenge on, but largely use natural magic and superstitions similar to an arbularyo, or witch doctor. Both can be considered witches, but the main difference is that the arbularyo is more of a doctor who heals people, while a mangkukulam is a malevolent person who tricks and curses others. The primary methods employed by a mangkukulam are candle lighting rituals, scrying or tawas, recitation of spells, and concocting potions. Healer-sorcerers who practice Kulam usually justify it as a form of criminal punishment, as a widespread belief is that black magic does not work on people who are innocent. Their targets are usually "wrongdoers" like thieves, adulterous spouses, or land grabbers. There are also "true" sorcerers who are said to have hereditary sorcerous powers. Unlike healers, they do not consider the justice of their actions. The latter type of sorcerers are often conflated with the evil supernatural beings capable of appearing human, like aswang and manananggal. Modern popular culture also depicts the mangkukulam as using either photographs or the equivalent of a Voodoo doll. Modern popular culture also depicts mangkukulam as mainly doing only love potions and malicious curses, but more extreme depictions claim they can summon ghosts to haunt dolls, raise the dead (or at least control dead bodies), and other things related to necromancy.
The Mambabarang is the Bisayan version of a sorcerer/sorceress, who uses insects and spirits to enter the body of any person they hate. Mambabarang are ordinary human beings with black magic who torture and later kill their victims by infesting their bodies with insects. They are different from mangkukulams - the latter only inflict pain or illness. Mambabarang use a strand of hair from their chosen victim and tie it to the bugs or worms which they will use as a medium. When they prick the bug, the victim immediately experiences the intended effect. The name is derived from the word barang. In legends the mambabarang keeps his swarm of carnivorous beetles in a bottle or a section of bamboo, carefully feeding them ginger root. When the practitioner decides to employ his dark art, he performs a prayer ritual wherein he whispers instructions and identifies the victim to the beetles. The destructive insects are then set free and to seek out the victim and gain entry into the body via any bodily orifice: the nose, mouth, ears, anus or dermal breaks such as open sores/wounds. The victim will then feel the effects of the invasion of the insects through manifestations depending on the area of entry; hemorrhoids if through the anus, ear ache if through the ears and other similar cases. The resulting illness is supposedly resistant to conventional medical treatment and only reveals its true nature when the victim succumbs and flying insects issue forth from bodily cavities. In reality, it is possible a carnivorous beetle could lay eggs in someone it killed, and the eggs would then hatch post-mortem.
A typical belief of kulam is that curses are mitigated by finding the caster and bribing him or her to lift the curse. Superstitious people still attribute certain illnesses or diseases to kulam. This most often happens in rural areas, where an herbal doctor called an Albularyo, diagnoses a victim using a divination method called Pagtatawas and helps the victim cure his or her malady. Superstitious folks still attribute certain illnesses or diseases to barang. This most often happens in the provinces, where an herbal doctor, albularyo or a faith healer, a mananambal or sorhuana (female) / sorhuano (male) treats such diseases. In some rural provincial areas, people completely rely on the albularyo and mananambal for treatment. In most cases, a healer is also a sorcerer. In order to cure or counteract sorcerous illnesses, healers must themselves know sorcery. This relationship is most apparent in Siquijor Island, where healer-sorcerers are still common. The mananambal specialize in countering barang. As spiritual mediums and divinators, Philippine shamans are notable for countering and preventing the curses and powers of witches, notably through the usage of special items and chants. Myths of the Philippines; Gaverza, J.K., 2014, University of the Philippines Diliman Sorcerous "attacks" are most commonly treated with sumbalik (counter-spells or antidotes), which are themselves, a form of sorcery and do not usually require interaction with the spirits. They purportedly deflect the effects of the curse and return it to the caster. In extreme cases, sumbalik can kill the caster. Other healing rituals against sorcery do not harm the caster, but instead supposedly moves them to pity and thus revoke the curse. Illnesses believed to be caused by sorcery are treated with counter-spells, simple antidotes, and physical healing. Darker forms of remedies to kulam include Albularyos whipping the bewitched person with a Buntot Pagi (Stingray's Tail) until the afflicted is forced to divulge the witch's name and confronting him or her. This is done in the belief that the one who is getting hurt is the witch and not the bewitched.
GabÃ¢ or gabaa, the Cebuano concept of negative karma
Tony Perez Panibagong Kulam
Regina Cieli Estrada(Regina Cieli's Art Shop) Brujeria Pilipinas Spells & Rituals for Complementary Healing
Neal Cruz (2008-10-31) "As I See It:Philippine mythological monsters". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
Category:Visayan mythology Category:Philippine culture Category:Philippine mythology Category:Religion in the Philippines Category:Asian shamanism Category:Superstitions of the Philippines Category:Southeast Asian traditional medicine Category:Witchcraft Category:Austronesian spirituality Category:Philippine society Category:Magic (supernatural)